As defined in NIMS, resource management involves coordinating and overseeing the application of tools, processes, and systems that provide incident managers with timely and appropriate resources during an incident.
In the national resource typing protocol, resources are organized by:
Category: A category is the function for which a resource would be most useful, for example, public works and engineering or firefighting.
Kind: Kind refers to broad classes that characterize like resources, such as teams, personnel, equipment, vehicles, aircraft, and supplies.
Components: A resource may be comprised of several components. For example, the components of an urban search and rescue (US&R) task force include:
Metrics: Metrics are measurable standards which are useful in describing a resource's capability. Metrics vary depending on the kind of resource being measured.
Examples: A metric associated with dump trucks is how many tons the bed can hold. A metric for a disaster medical assistance team is how many patients it can care for per day.
Type: Type refers to the level of resource capability. Assigning the Type 1 label to a resource implies that it has a greater level of capability based on its metrics than a Type 2 of the same kind of resource (for example, due to its power, size, or capacity). Typing provides managers with additional information to aid the selection and best use of resources. The number of types varies with the kind of resource.
Additional Information: Additional information might include limitations, required authorizations, and applicable legislation or legal ramifications that affect activation or utilization of the resources.This makes the resource ordering and dispatch process within jurisdictions, across jurisdictions, and between governmental and nongovernmental entities more efficient. Resource typing entails categorizing by capability the resources that incident managers commonly request, deploy, and use on incidents. Measurable standards identifying the capabilities and performance level of resources serve as the basis for categories. Resource kinds may be divided into subcategories (types) to define more precisely the resource capabilities needed to meet specific requirements. Resource typing is designed to facilitate frequent use and accuracy in obtaining needed resources. To allow resources to be deployed and used on a national basis, the NIMS Integration Center is responsible for defining national resource typing standards.
Binghamton University shall utilize the resource type descriptions as defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). These descriptions are broken down into eight categories.
To view detailed definitions of resource types go to http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/rm/rt.shtml .
Binghamton University shall maintain an inventory of all eight categories of federally defined resources. The universityâ€™s Emergency Manager shall be responsible for collecting the data and updating the information annually. The information shall be maintained in such a way that it is easily retrievable to all authorized emergency personnel (i.e. CEOC staff, NYSUPD dispatch, etc.)
Internal Resources : Any authorized university personnel may request a university owned resource. The request shall be made directly to the department that controls that resource. Emergency internal requests take priority over non-emergency requests. If activated, the CEOC has final authority of the distribution of equipment.
External Resources : All requests for external resources shall be made by the Incident Management Team (IMT) or the designated Incident Commander (I.C.). Following NIMS protocols, requests for resources shall be approved by I.C. and then forwarded to the appropriate agency (i.e. SUNY Administration, Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES), etc.)
Supervisors must record and report to the IMT resource status changes as they occur. The IMT shall be responsible for the tracking of all significant resources during emergency incidents.
For small-scale emergencies that do not require the activation of the IMT : If the incident is being managed by campus personnel, the on-scene I.C. shall make all requests for resources through NYSUPD dispatch. If the incident is being managed by off-campus personnel (i.e. Vestal F.D.) all requests for resources will be made to Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES). NYSUPD and Broome County OES shall facilitate communication between the two agencies to ensure there is no duplication of resources.
For emergencies where the IMT has been activated : The IMT shall work with the Incident Command Post (ICP) regarding the dispatching of all resources.
The Planning Section shall maintain status of resources assigned to the incident and may establish a Demobilization Unit. The Demobilization Unit develops an Incident Demobilization Plan that includes specific instructions for all personnel and resources that will require demobilization. This unit should begin its work early in the incident, creating rosters of personnel and resources and obtaining any missing information as check-in proceeds.
Note that many campus resources do not require specific demobilization instructions. Once the Incident Demobilization Plan has been approved, the Demobilization Unit ensures that it is distributed both at the incident and elsewhere as necessary.
The ICP and the IMT shall follow â€˜Dispatchingâ€™ protocol for recalling resources. Adequate rehabilitation time must be considered when recalling human resources.
Certifying and Credentialing Personnel
NIMS requires national standards for the certification and credentialing of emergency response personnel.
Certification entails authoritatively attesting that individuals meet professional standards for the training, experience, and performance required for key incident management functions.
Credentialing involves providing documentation that can authenticate and verify the certification and identity of designated incident management staff and emergency responders.
Standards developed by the NIMS Integration Center help ensure that participating agencies' and organizations' field personnel possess the minimum knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to execute incident management and emergency response activities safely and effectively. Standards typically include minimum levels for:
Binghamton University shall certify and provide credentials for university employees operating in the following categories:
Binghamton University shall recognize New York State or Broome County credentials for university employees operating in the following categories:
Resource managers use various resource inventory systems to assess the availability of assets provided by public, private, and volunteer organizations. Inventory managers enter all resources available for deployment into resource tracking systems maintained at local, State, regional, and Federal levels. The data are then made available to dispatch centers, EOCs, and Multiagency Coordination Entities. Because inventory data is shared among so many entities, inventory system interoperability is a major concern. Binghamton University shall utilize a resource inventory system compatible with similar systems from Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES) and the New York State Office of Emergency Management.
A key aspect of the inventorying process is determining whether or not the primary-use organization needs to warehouse items prior to an incident. Resource managers make this decision by considering the urgency of the need, whether there are sufficient quantities of required items on hand, and/or whether they can be produced quickly enough to meet demand. Another important part of the process is managing inventories with shelf-life or special maintenance considerations. Resource managers must build sufficient funding into their budgets for periodic replenishments, preventative maintenance, "surge" stocking, and capital improvements.
Resource managers identify, refine, and validate resource requirements throughout the incident life cycle. This process involves accurately identifying:
Resources to be identified in this way include supplies, equipment, facilities, and incident management personnel and/or emergency response teams. If a requestor is unable to describe an item by resource type or classification system, resource managers provide technical advice to enable the requirements to be defined and translated into a request for an appropriate resource.
Because resource availability and requirements will constantly change as the incident evolves, all participating entities must coordinate closely in this process. Coordination begins at the earliest possible point in the incident life cycle.
Requests for items that the IC cannot obtain locally are submitted through the IMT, the local EOC or other Multiagency Coordinating Entity using standardized resource-ordering procedures. If the IMT is unable to fill the order locally, the order is forwarded to the next levelâ€”generally the County, an adjacent local, State, regional EOC, or Multiagency Coordinating Entity.
Incident personnel begin mobilizing when notified through established channels. At the time of notification, they are given the:
The resource tracking and mobilization processes are directly linked. When the resources arrive on scene, they must formally check in. This starts the on-scene in-processing and validates the order requirements. Notification that the resource has arrived is sent back through the system.
The IMT shall take direction from standard interagency mobilization guidelines at the Federal, regional, State, local, and Tribal levels. For resource managers, the mobilization process may include:
Managers should plan and prepare for the demobilization process well in advance; often at the same time they begin the mobilization process. Early planning for demobilization facilitates accountability and makes transportation of resources as efficient, costs as low and delivery as fast as possible.
Resource tracking is a standardized, integrated process conducted throughout the life cycle of an incident by all agencies at all levels. This process provides:
Resource managers use established procedures to track resources continuously from mobilization through demobilization. Binghamton University shall utilize a system (i.e. real time electronic database, standard resource order forms, â€˜Tâ€™ cards, etc.) to accurately track and report the status of all resources. Managers shall follow all required procedures for acquiring and managing resources, including reconciliation, accounting, auditing, and inventorying.
Recovery involves the final disposition of all resources. During this process, resources are rehabilitated, replenished, and repositioned if possible, and disposed of properly if not.
Nonexpendable resources include those intended for reuse, including:
These resources are fully accounted for at the incident site and again when they are returned to the unit that issued them. The issuing unit then restores the resources to fully functional capability and readies them for the next mobilization. Broken and/or lost items should be replaced through the Supply Unit (Logistics Section), by the organization with invoicing responsibility for the incident, or as defined in pre-incident agreements. In the case of human resources, adequate rest and recuperation time and facilities shall be provided.
Expendable resources include equipment and supplies that are intended for a single use such as surgical gloves, fire suppression foam, disposable clothing, etc. Expendable resources are also fully accounted for. The planning process should identify who bears the cost for restocking expendable resources. Restocking normally occurs at the point from which a resource was issued.
Returned resources that are not in restorable condition, whether expendable or non-expendable, must be declared as excess according to established regulations and policies of the controlling entity. Waste management is of special importance in the process of recovering resources. Resources that require special handling and disposition (e.g., biological waste and contaminated supplies, debris, and equipment) are dealt with according to established regulations and policies and shall be managed by Environmental Health & Safety.
Reimbursement provides a mechanism to fund critical needs that arise from incident-specific activities. Reimbursement processes also play an important role in establishing and maintaining the readiness of resources. Processes and procedures must be in place to ensure that resource providers are reimbursed in a timely manner. These must include mechanisms for collecting bills, validating costs against the scope of the work, ensuring that proper authorities are involved, and accessing reimbursement programs, such as the Public Assistance Program.
The IMT shall be responsible for all reimbursement procedures related to emergency incidents. The Finance / Administration Section Chief must comply with all campus and SUNY policies regarding reimbursement practices.
Resources come from a variety of sources, including:
The first source that shall be considered is the current capability and inventory of Binghamton University. During a disaster, the campus shall exhaust its own resources before approaching the next level of government for assistance.
Analysis of personnel should include not only their job-related training, skills, and experience, but additional experience, hobbies, or part-time job skills that might be useful. An example might be the finance clerk that is an amateur radio operator, or the firefighter that has a pilot's license.
If Binghamton University does not have a particular resource, the next place to look will usually be its mutual aid partners. All mutual aid resources are controlled and dispatched by the Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES). All requests for mutual aid will therefore be made through the Broome County OES.
Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES) and the New York State Emergency Management Office (SEMO) track a variety of resources available at all levels of government, their capabilities and support needs and response times. Availability is not guaranteed. For example, members of the National Guard and military reserve units may not be available as disaster resources if they have been deployed elsewhere.
A good rule of thumb is to assume that resources outside the disaster area (State and Federal resources) will take up to 72 hours to arrive. I t should also be reinforced that all resource requests to other levels of government must follow the established request procedures.
Many volunteer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play major roles in emergency response. Commonly referred to as Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters, or VOAD, the number and degree of formal organizations vary from State to State. The American Red Cross is the most high profile of the VOAD organizations, with its national, congressionally mandated mission to provide care to disaster victims.
Binghamton University will communicate with the Broome County Office of Emergency Services (OES) for all resources through local (non-campus) volunteer organizations.
Many supplies are most easily and cost-effectively procured from local commercial sources. Be sure that all costs associated with the resources are identified. Some costs, such as fuel, operators, or standby time, may not be readily apparent in a price quote.
During disasters, private sector sources frequently wish to contribute goods and services free or at a reduced cost. However, it is also important to have a procedure in place that clearly defines and documents the conditions under which goods and services are being offered. It is not unusual for jurisdictions to be billed at a later date for resources that were offered "free" in the initial response to the emergency. Making certain that the circumstances are clear helps ensure that donors are recognized for being good neighbors, and that there are no misunderstandings later.
The IMT shall control all donations and shall be responsible for an incident specific procedure for the acceptance/denial of all donations.
Tracking resources efficiently while they are on the incident is essential for personnel safety, accountability, and fiscal control. Resource tracking responsibilities on the incident are shared between:
During day-to-day operations, incident demobilization is usually a casual affair. As resources complete their assignments, they are returned to service through normal dispatch procedures. During disasters, where resources may come from other agencies and jurisdictions and/or travel some distance to reach the incident, demobilization becomes more complicated and should be formalized to ensure both safety and efficiency.
On single agency and/or smaller incidents, the planning and the process of demobilization may be quite simple and will not require a formal written demobilization plan or a Demobilization Unit to prepare it. Even at the most basic level, demobilization should take into account two factors: Safety, and cost.
Safety: Organizations should watch for "first in, last out" syndrome. Resources that were first on scene should be considered for early release. They should also be evaluated for fatigue and the distance they will need to travel to their home base prior to release.
Cost: Expensive resources should be monitored carefully to ensure that they are released as soon as they are no longer needed, or if their task can be accomplished in a more cost effective manner.
Incident personnel are considered under incident management and responsibility until they reach their home base or new assignment. In some circumstances this may also apply to contracted resources. For reasons of liability, it is important that the incident organization mitigate potential safety issues (such as fatigue) prior to letting resources depart for home.
On large incidents, especially those which may have personnel and tactical resources from several jurisdictions or agencies, and where there has been an extensive integration of multi-jurisdiction or agency personnel into the incident organization, a Demobilization Unit within the Planning Section should be established early in the life of the incident. A written demobilization plan is essential on larger incidents.
Resources no longer needed within each Section should be reported to the Section Chief as soon as it is determined that the need for them no longer exists.
In coordination with the Operations Section, the Demobilization Unit, if established, may recommend release priorities for the Incident Commander's approval based upon continuing needs both on and off the incident. The Operations Section will ensure that demobilization planning provides adequate reserve resources.
Binghamton University may differ in how it establishes release priorities for resources assigned to an incident, depending on the nature and scale of the incident. An example of release priorities might be (in order of release):
Demobilization should incorporate any follow-up actions that may be needed prior to release from the incident, including Stress Management and other medical debriefings, personnel performance evaluations, equipment servicing, safety checks, etc.
Convergence is the result of unstructured response to an incident. Convergence can come from several sources, and may severely hamper emergency response activities, as well as place an enormous logistical burden on an already burdened system. It may also provide unexpected benefits, especially in the period of time between the occurrence of the incident, and the arrival of State and Federal resources.
Convergence issues may include any or all of the following:
It is difficult to overstate the monetary and psychological importance of donations and volunteer assistance during a major disaster. Successfully managing and tracking donations and coordinating the efforts of volunteers (solicited or unsolicited), can be both a significant political, psychological, and logistical opportunityâ€”and a problem.
Donations take the form of either funds, or donations of goods and services. The key to successful management of these assets is the ability to solicit and gather appropriate donations, prioritize them, and distribute them to those most in need.
The system must also be prepared to deal with inappropriate donations without bogging down the distribution of essential goods and services.
The inability to manage donations can lead to an "emergency within an emergency." It may even become necessary for the jurisdiction to protect itself from charges of mismanagement, or for being billed at a later date for goods and services presented as "donations" at the time.
Strategies for Dealing with Donations
Consult with organizations that are used to soliciting, managing and distributing donated goods and funds. Consider developing an agreement to designate VOAD organizations responsible for managing donations.
Develop and train volunteer resources such as Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) to assist with donations and volunteer management.
Develop public information and media releases that provide direction for those who wish to donate.
Develop and implement an effective management structure to receive, warehouse, inventory, organize, distribute, and account for large-scale donations.
It is a fact that civilian volunteers are among the first to respond to a disaster. Often, they are witnesses to the disaster, and are on the scene before emergency responders arrive. Their intervention saves lives, but can also cost lives, as they are usually not trained or equipped to respond safely to the disaster. Consideration needs to be given to how to manage this resource.
Volunteers come in two varieties: trained and organized, and spontaneous and untrained. The first can be an important asset during a disaster; the second presents both an opportunity, and the potential for serious liability.
Volunteers such as amateur radio operators, search and rescue teams, CERTs, police and fire auxiliaries, and reserves are valued members of emergency management organizations in many jurisdictions. Such resources are known quantities that train and exercise to play specific roles in an emergency. They have long-standing formal relationships that are spelled out in written agreements and SOPs. Individual members have credentials and identification issued by the volunteer organization itself and/or the emergency management organization with which it has the agreement. Spontaneous volunteers just show up. Knowing that they will is half the battle; making use of their energy and goodwill safely and effectively is the other half.
VIP visits cause yet another convergence issue for incidents. Depending on who the visitor is, and where they want to visit, this can disrupt incident operations, cause additional traffic congestion, and attract additional media representation. On the other hand, such visits are valuable in providing VIPs with a realistic view of the problems posed by the disaster, may result in enhanced resources, and provide a morale boost to responders and victims. Most VIPs are aware of the impact their presence may have on operations, and will be willing to coordinate visits with the incident management organization. Strategies for dealing with VIP visits include:
Self-dispatched resources represent both risk and opportunity. The risks include issues related to liability and reimbursement. If the incident assigns a resource outside of the normal activation and request process, it is possible that the university may become liable for their actions, or for any accidents or injuries they incur while working. The university may also be responsible for any expenses or reimbursement.
Ordinarily, the risks associated with assigning self-dispatched resources outweigh the advantages. However, they may present an opportunity in the form of trained and capable resources during the initial life-safety phase of the incident when such resources are desperately needed.
If self-dispatched resources must be used, consider the following strategies:
Self-dispatched resources may become freelancers if the incident organization cannot organize to use them. Instruct perimeter personnel to refer self-dispatched emergency resources to staging or mobilization points. Staging Area Managers and Resource Unit Check-In Recorders must be ready to inventory resources for skills and readiness, check them in, organize them into appropriate tactical configurations and assign them to the incident. If their skills are not needed, they should return to normal status to avoid unnecessary impact on overall public safety coverage.
Personnel issues range from the need for simple rest and fluid replacement rehabilitation to replacing a significant part of the workforce, as was the case in New York City following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. In extreme cases, personnel consequences may verge on the catastrophic. It is not unusual for jurisdictions to experience a higher than normal retirement or resignation rate following a disaster. A higher than normal number of personnel will also require retirement or reassignment for medical or psychological disabilities. The New York City Fire Department, which experienced the on-duty deaths of a significant number of its emergency responders and Command Staff at the World Trade Center, found itself contemplating the need to recruit, screen, and train a large number of new firefighters, as well as holding promotional assessments to replace department managers.
Such issues have a long-term effect on the jurisdiction's finances, preparedness, and morale.
Personnel issues may include:
Under the Stafford Act, certain response costs are reimbursed for presidentially declared disasters. While it is beyond the scope of this course to discuss Stafford-Act reimbursements in detail, generally, reimbursement is possible (under certain conditions) in the following categories:
Under certain conditions other facilities, equipment or systems may qualify.
Extensive documentation is required for reimbursement under the Stafford Act. FEMA accepts records in a number of formats; however, any tracking system for reimbursement should be able to:
Last Updated: 4/4/11